It consists of two lines (MISRA); first line is called
'MISRA-E-OOLA' and the second is called 'MISRA-E-SANI'.
Each verse embodies a single thought or subject (sing)
Another term for SHE'R.
The best SHE'R in a GHAZAL
(Ode). The literary meaning of the word 'GHAZAL'
is to converse with beloved. It is a poem containing
minimum 5 verses and maximum 25. The opening Verse of
the GHAZAL is called MATLA and both hemistiches rhyme
with one another. The last verse of the GHAZAL is called
MAQTA which usually contains the penname of the poet.
Most of Persian and Urdu writers have earned fame as
GHAZAL writers. GHAZAL is the soul of Urdu literature
and most popular form of Urdu poetry.
Composition of only a single SHE'R is called FARD.
Poem written in praise of God.
Poem with humourous subject.
(Satire). A poem written to condemn or to abuse
a person. This form of poetry is considered of low type
and which is usually avoided by reputed poets. The exact
opposite of HIJV is MADAH which is a poem written in
praise of Kings and Patrons.
Rhyming of the first two lines of a GHAZAL is called
Poem written in praise of Kings and Patrons.
Poem written in praise of Ahle-E-Bait (the members of
the family of Holy Prophet).
last line of a GHAZAL or a poem which generally contains
the poet's pen-name.
A poem written to commemorate the exploits of great
men of Islam; usually to describe the battle fought
on the plains of Karbala in Iraq by Hazarat Imam Husain
and his supporters against the army of Yazid. It is
usually a poem of mourning. The famous MARSIYA writers
in Urdu are Mir Baberali Anis and Salamatali Dabir.
Even a short poem written to mourn the death of a friend
can be called MARSIYA. Lord Alfred Tennyson's poem 'In
Memoriam' can rightly be called MARSIYA. The sub-parts
of MARSIYA are called NOHA and SOZ which means lamentation
and burning of (heart) respectively.
A long epic poem describing the battles fought long
ago and past events. It may also contain philosophical
or ethical themes. The most famous MASNAWIS are Shah-Namah
of Firdosi, Masnavi-E-Roomi in Persian language and
Zehar-E-Ishq in Urdu. Even epic poems of India, Mahabharata
and Ramayana can be called MASNAWI.
The opening SHE'R of a GHAZAL or a poem.
One line of a couplet, or verse.
A lyrical poem as prayer to God.
Each unit consists of 6 lines (Misra). Most famous writer
of this type of poem is Maulana Altaf Husain Hali.
Verses written in praise of the Holy Prophet.
The literary meaning of NAZM is Poetry (opp of NASR)
(Prose) A poem fully dealing with a single subject or
Rhyming of the last words of a poem.
(Ballad). It is a long poem in Urdu, Persian or
Arabic which usually describes battles or written in
praise of kings; princes or the poet's patron. There
is no limit of verses; it may even go beyond hundred
(Fragments). It has two SHE'RS (lines) and has a
complete one subject.
(End rhyme). Each SHE'R of GHAZAL in addition to
QAFIA may also have RADEEF which is rhyming of more
than the last two or three words.
Contains only 4 lines, the third one being different
from the other three as it should not have QAFIA and
RADEEF. RUBAI'EE deals with social, philosophical and
romantic subjects. In Persian language Umar Khayyam
is supposed to be a great poet of RUBAIYY A T whereas
in Urdu Yagana, Firaq and Josh are leading poets of
this time and Anis, an old time poet.
(Literal meaning Salutation) It is a kind of poem
in which the incidents of Karbala i.e. hardships of
Hazarat Imam Husain and his followers are described
It is also written in Praise of Holy Prophet, and is
recited by standing up.
A song sung at the time of tying Sehra during wedding
ceremony, praising the bride or the bridegroom and their
Poem describing a ruined city.
The manner of reciting a poem; like rhythmic prose
i.e. without singing; word for word.
A name adopted by a poet, by which he is known in
the literary world.
The manner of reciting a poem in the form of a song.
Literal meaning 'displeasure' or 'disgust'. A kind
of poem in which the displeasure and carelessness of
a lover is narrated; while relinquishing the beloved.
Song or hymn.
A symposium of poets; a poet's gathering.
Devotional song expressing the love and oneness
with God sung by a group _of people to the accompaniment
of musical instruments. Now-a-days, it has taken popular
form covering subjects of romance, liquor, etc.